In the book “Aquatic Readiness” by Langedorfer and Bruya (1995), the term water competence is presented to describe a wider understanding of water skills. Water competence is described as:

  1. Knowledge about water
    Understand the water’s properties and dangers. Practice safe behavior and prevent dangerous behavior.
  2. Water skills
    Basic swimming and ability to get out into the water and up to the surface, breathing control, floating, turning around, and getting safely up out of the water.
  3. Helping others
    Saving techniques where you remain onshore without having to go into the water, and simple, safe saving techniques in water.